Dr. Howard Gardner first proposed Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory over 40 years, suggesting that IQ is not one-dimensional, and that it can't be described by a single number. Instead, he proposed that there are at least eight different types of intelligence, including visual-spatial, musical-rhythmic, interpersonal, and more.*
While not every educator supports MI theory, I believe that it has great potential as a tool for empowering students to take responsiblity for their own learning experiences. Most kids think that someone is either smart or not smart, and that the students who are "smart" are those who excel in math and/or reading. This view makes sense when you think about how schools are designed. The current system favors students who are mathematical-logical or verbal-linguistic. But kids who are artistic, musical, or kinesthetic learners are often out of luck.
Fortunately, educators now recognize that there are many paths to understanding, and students learn best when they are able to engage in activities that take advantage of their strengths. Teachers have always intuitively known that kids learn in different ways, and Gardner's Multiple Intelligence theory supported their own classroom observations and experiences. Dr. Gardner's work in this area opened the way for teachers to discuss the implications and search for practical applications in the classroom.
Dr. Gardner used terms like "bodily-kinesthetic" and "mathematical-logical," but many educators have adopted the kid-friendly terms such as those shown in the image on the right below. If you like the posters below, you can download a free PDF file of them to print.
If you’re familiar with Dr. Carol Dweck’s research regarding fixed versus growth mindset, you might be wondering whether her findings are compatible with MI theory. To provide a bit of context, Dr. Dweck found that praising kids for being "smart" is actually detrimental to their self-esteem and hinders them from succeeding in school. When kids are praised for being smart, they learn to avoid tasks that include a risk of failure, because failing must mean they aren’t smart.
The good news is that we can positively impact our students’ mindsets by changing the way we praise them. Praising students for choosing challenging tasks and recognizing them for working hard to master difficult skills fosters a “growth” mindset. With enough encouragement and support, kids will begin to believe in themselves and succeed in situations where they would have previously given up.
Partly due to concerns about praising kids for being smart, some educators believe that MI theory is no longer relevant. However, I disagree. If you think about it, the two theories actually support each other quite well. MI theory can help students understand how they learn best, and this knowledge can foster a growth mindset when they are struggling to solve a problem or facing a difficult task.
However, it’s important to have a full understanding of both concepts in order to implement them effectively in the classroom. Carol Dweck’s work reminds us of the need for caution when using the word “smart” as it relates to MI theory. We should never treat “smartness” as
a fixed quality, or praise students for being "smart,” as if being smart is in itself a worthy goal. Any praise we offer students should support a growth mindset.
Growth mindset research also comes into play when interpreting the results of MI surveys. While a survey may indicate that we have strengths in some areas more than others, those results may not be a true reflection of our abilities. In fact, any "strengths" may be the result of previous life experiences, and we are likely to develop strengths in other areas in the coming years as we try new things. Scores in each of the eight areas should be viewed as flexible, providing a snapshot of how we learn best right now. The way we can become smarter in ALL areas is to try new experiences and be willing to face challenges, even if that means we might not be successful right away.
To put this into perspective, imagine that one of your students, Cindy, tells you she’s not smart in math. She’s always felt this way and has just accepted it as a “weakness.” However, after learning about MI theory and growth mindset, Cindy realizes that she’s not doomed to have poor math skills forever. After taking an MI survey, Cindy discovers that she’s highly Visual-Spatial and has strengths as a Bodily Kinesthetic learner. The next time she feels frustrated trying to solve a math problem, she decides to draw a picture to help her visualize the problem and its solution. To check the answer, she recreates the problem using snap cubes because this hands-on approach gives her confidence in her solution.
Ultimately, both multiple intelligence theory and the research on growth mindset can empower students to take ownership of their learning!
By the way, if you're encouraging your students to develop a growth mindset, you might object to teaching them the kid-friendly MI terms because all of those terms include the word "smart." Instead, teach your students the terms that Dr. Gardner used to describe these intelligence areas. They may enjoy the challenge of learning those big words!
I love teaching kids that there are many ways we are "smart" and helping them to discover their own unique strengths. Over the years, I developed a mini unit for teaching students about MI theory, and those lessons make up the core of Multiple Intelligence Theory for Kids: Step-by-Step Lessons and Printables. This ebook describes exactly how to teach these concepts to your students in an engaging way using cooperative learning strategies.
I recently updated Multiple Intelligence Theory for Kids to include information about how to use growth mindset research to make the program even stronger. I think you'll find the new material to be an important piece.
If you're wondering if these lessons and activities would be appropriate for your students, take a look at PDF preview of the entire book.
Multiple Intelligence Theory for Kids
Click to learn about the School Site License option!
Watch the video below to learn how to download this free Multiple Intelligences for Kids survey. You can use this survey with upper elementary and middle school students to help them figure out their strengths. In the video I explain how to administer the survey and some general guidelines for using it. You can also head over to my TeachersPayTeachers store and download it from there, but I suggest that you return to this page and watch the video before you use this with students.
Multiple Intelligences: The Complete MI Book
by Dr. Spencer Kagan
I first became aware of Multiple Intelligence Theory about 12 years ago when attending a teacher workshop held by Dr. Spencer Kagan. Kagan is an authority on cooperative learning. Kagan embraced Gardener's theory because it fit perfectly with his experiences and helped to explain the powerful benefits achieved when students are actively engaged and working together in teams. Kagan wrote this resource for classroom and I highly recommend it. The book includes a full description of each area as well as dozens of cooperative learning activities to enrich the learning experience. It can be ordered from Amazon by clicking on this title link or the book cover above: Multiple Intelligences: The Complete MI Book. Although it was written over 10 years ago, the information is still very relevant and useful.
by Dr. Howard Gardner ~ 2006
This is not Dr. Gardner's’ original MI book, but he has changed his theory in the last 25 years so this is actually a more up-to-date resource. This book provides excellent information on the entire theory and how it has developed over the years. Although it wasn’t written specifically for classroom teachers, it does contain a wealth of useful information for educators. You can read more reviews or order from Amazon.com.
by Laura Candler
This one was written by me! I loved teaching about the rain forest, and it was easy to integrate multiple intelligences into my lessons! Using the lessons in this book, you can take your students on a safari through the tropical rain forest. Use their limitless curiosity and enthusiasm about this theme as a springboard into every subject! Includes 36 ready-to-do cooperative, multiple intelligences activities to explore the rain forest. Working in teams and with classmates, your students will create and sing tropical tunes, write letters to conservation agencies, map the rain forests of the world, learn about the rain forest products, medical mysteries, amazing animals, jungle secrets, layers of life and much more. Loaded with reproducibles. Explore the rain forest with your class to make learning an unforgettable adventure. Learn more and read reviews on Amazon.
Click the orange links below to visit these websites.
*Isn't there a 9th intelligence area?
Yes, there is. Dr. Gardner later added Existential Intelligence to his original list of eight intelligences, but I have not included it in the materials on this page. Because of the religious and spiritual nature of Existential Intelligence, it's not one that I would include in lessons for elementary students. Feel free to introduce this to your students if you wish.